Gentlemen Agreement


Gentlemen’s Agreement that is signed between Telangana and Andhra leaders before the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956.


This is to address that the formation of Vishalandra is a “conditional” (sharathu tho kudina) agreement, if fail to do so, we can be separated, so Telangana leader assumed that, we will have our state in the event of not fulfilling the conditions by AP.


1. There will be one legislature for the whole of Andhra Pradesh which will be the sole law making body for the entire state and there be one Governor for the State aided and advised by the Council of Ministers responsible to the State Assembly for the entire field of Administration.


2. For the more convenient transaction of the business of Government with regard to some specified matters the Telangana area will be treated as one region.


3. For the Telangana region there will be a Regional Standing Committee of the state assembly consisting of the members of the State Assembly belonging to that region including the Ministers from that region but not including the Chief Minister.


4. Legislation relating to specified matters will be referred to the Regional committee. In respect of specified matters proposals may also be made by the Regional Committee to the State Government for legislation or with regard to the question of general policy not involving any financial commitments other than expenditure of a routine and incidental character.


5. The advice tendered by the Regional Committee will normally be accepted by the Government and the State Legislature. In case of difference of opinion, reference will be made to the Governor whose decision will be binding.


6. The Regional Committee will deal with following matters:

 Development and economic planning within the framework of the general development plans formulated by the State Legislature.

           Local Self Government, that is to say, the Constitutional powers of Municipal Corporations, Improvement Trusts, District Boards and district authorities for the purpose of Local Self Government or Village Administration.

           Public health and sanitation, local hospitals and dispensaries.

           Primary and secondary education.

           Regulation of admission to the educational institutions in the telangana region.

           Prohibition sale of agricultural lands.

           Cottage and small scale Industries, and Agriculture, Cooperative Societies, Markets and Fairs. Unless revised by agreement earlier this arrangement will be reviewed after ten years.


7. Domicile Rules: A temporary provision be made to ensure that for a period of five years, Telangana is regarded as a unit as far as recruitment to subordinate services in the region is concerned; posts borne on the cadre of these services may be reserved for being filled up by persons who satisfy the domicile conditions as prescribed under the existing Hyderabad Mulki Rules. (12 years of Stay in Telangana area)


8. Distribution of expenditure between Telangana and Andhra Regions--- Allocation of expenditure with the resources of the state is a matter which falls within the purview of the State Government and the State Legislature. Since, however, it has been agreed to the representatives of Andhra and Telangana that the expenditure of the new state on central and general administration should be borne proportionately by the two regions and the balance of income should be reserved for expenditure on the development of Telangana area, it is open to the state government to act in accordance with the terms of agreement in making budgetary allocations. The Government of India proposes to invite the attention of the Chief Minister of Andhra to this particular understanding and to express the hope that it will be implemented.


9. The existing educational facilities including Technical Education in Telangana should be secured to the students of Telangana and further improved.


10. The cabinet will consist of members in proportion of 60:40 percent for Andhra and telangana respectively, out of 40% of Telangana ministers; one will be a Muslim from Telangana. If the Chief Minister is from one region the other region should be given Deputy Chief Ministership.


Signatories from Andhra region:


Bezawada Gopal Reddy

Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy


Alluri Satyanarayana Raju


Telangana Region:


B. Ram Krishna Rao

K.V. Ranga Reddy

M. Channa Reddy

J.V. Narsing Rao


So far, it looks fine, but will this agreement was in operational? Why Jai Telangana movement started after 13 years?

Vishalandra noble cause as telugu speaking regions united become Andhra Pradesh.


1968 Telangana Agitation: 


Telangana safeguards enumerated in the Gentlemen's agreement would have been expired due to which junior engineer of the thermal project have been removed from service.  In the meantime Osmania University student’s union elections took place.  Bramhananda Reddy, Jaypal Reddy vs. Mallikarjun group.  R Venkatarami Reddy elected as President, Madhusudhan Reddy Vice President, Mallikarjun General Secretary, Srinivas Reddy Joint Secretary,
Puli Veeranna Executive Member, Jagadishwar Reddy Executive Member, E M Jangam Rao Exec. Member, S Gopal Rao Exec Member of Osmania University students union who belongs to Mallikarjun group. Prominent student leaders Narayan Das, Gopal Krishna, Narsimha Reddy, Surdas Reddy supported student’s union.  Later on an executive member meeting has been called by Osmania Student’s
Union to celebrate Osmania University Silver Jubilee function.


1969 Telangana Agitation


The Telangana agitation started in the first week of January 1969 in Khammam when students demanded the implementation of the Telangana safeguards enumerated in the Gentlemen's Agreement in connection with the retrenchment of junior Engineers of Thermal project in Kothagudem. Ravinder student leader from Kothagudem went on hunger strike. Puliveeranna and Mallikarjun went to Kothagudem and requested Ravinder to drop hunger strike. Osmania student’s Union executive body meeting called to discuss the safeguards agreement, at Nizams College Darbar Hall. One of communist leader from Student’s Federation of India Sadanandam also participated in the discussion.  Other prominent leaders attended the meeting are, PJ Suri, Gopala Krishna Rao, Suridas Reddy,  Narsimha Reddy and Narayan Das.


Telangana safeguards discussion started between two groups (President group and Mallikarjun, Narayan Das Group).  Situation lead to flighting and Mallikarjun group including Puliveeranna went out and Puliveeranna was first person to raised voice of separate Telangana State. Mallikarjun group quit the meeting and went to Osmania University Campus hostel.  Other group went along with Jaypal Reddy and planned separately to go on agitation. 



The students got divided into two groups: one demanding the implementation of safeguards and the other demanding a separate Telangana state.


15th Jananuary, 1969 onwards safeguards strike went on.  Osmania students also decided to go on agitation for separate Telangana state at Nizam College grounds on the same day. In the agitation the key members are Mallikarjun, Narayan Das and Puliveeranna.  Mallikarjun group took a procession from Nizam College grounds with about 3,000 students of Osmania University colleges participated the procession and went up to Koti Women's College and disbursed from there.  Next day again the group gathered at Nizam College grounds and conducted a peaceful procession from Nizam College grounds to Women's College, Koti.  During the procession, near about Abids centre the safeguards forces attacked Osmania student’s procession and violence took place. With the police intervention both groups were separated and one car was burnt in front of Gadwal Saree Shop, Abids. Government promulgated 144 CRPC prohibition.  Again we called a gathering at Nizam College to take out a procession violating the 144 CRPC.  17th January, 1969 police made lathi charge and 33 students taken into custody.  Among those prominent student leaders are: Puliveeranna, Mallikarjun, S Gopal Rao, B Venkat Reddy, Ramakant Rao Sridhar Reddy, Ranga Reddy and Pulla Reddy etc, produced in front of the court.  Before producing us in front of court, many mediators came to talk to us such as Goverdhan Reddy MLA, Purushotham Reddy MLC and we rejected their offer to mediate.  Well wishers of Telangana separate state supported and Mr Giriraj Saxena prominent advocate gave us bail. The press reporters are Pratap Kishore and Raghuveera Rao, EV Padmanabhan and Ravinder and Laxma Reddy supported us bringing the issue to public.


Once we all came out of custody, again we gave a call to boycott the classes in Osmania University and conducted meeting.  On 20th of Jan, 1969 when students were agitating at Shamshabad school, police open ed fired and one student have been killed. Again on 24th Jan, 1969 at Sadashivpet police opened fire in which Shankar has been killed. Government ordered Para Military forces to vacate the Osmania University hostels.  We all formed a student’s action committee with the leadership of Mallikarjun.  On 29th January, 1969 Hostels have been vacated and Mallikarjun gave a call to stop boycotting the classes and students did not attended the classes. 


On 30th January, 1969 morning 1,000 of students came to Mallikarjun to revoke against decision taken by the student’s action committee. On the same day at Gajwel, Medak District, police opened fire on the mob. On the same day, we chalked out students convention programs and went around Telangana districts with help of finance from Mr Chandu unknown person.  We managed with the money given by Mr Chandu up to 14th February, 1969. Meanwhile, during the convention, police fired on 1st Feb, 1969 at Srisailam project site at Eagalapenta Village, Mahbubnagar district.  On 5th Feb, 1969 again police opened fire on the mob at Bellampalli, Adilabad district.


Mallikarjun and Puliveeranna approached all like minded citizens who were in 1956 separate Telanaga agitation.  On 14th February, 1969 some of the people came and sat together like Madhan Mohan, Pratap Kishore, Manohar Raj, Saxena, Dr Gopal Krishna, EV Padmanabhan, Raghuveera Rao, Ramakanta Rao, A. Shashi and formed a people's forum under leadership of Madan Mohan.  From next day onwards they established office at Varakantam Gopal Reddy house.  Venkat Rama Reddy Samiti President from Medchal joined the forum followed by all people from 1956 Telangana agitation. On 25th Feb, 1969 police opened fire at Tandoor town.


To support the forum, the political parties also came forward. The prominent leaders include Badri Vishal Pitti MLA, SSP (Samyukta Socialist Party) SB Giri (Socialist Party), some of the Jena Sang leaders came forward and started participating the programs like separate Telangana conventions.  Subsequently, the office shifted to Bhoomanna Marg, Lingampally, Hyderabad.


Bandhs, hartals and district Telangana conventions started conducting by the forum.  On 28th Mar 1969 Engineering college students burnt the Jamia Osmania Railway Station without prior plan in which two student leaders of Osmania Engineering College were burnt and died with the last breathing of “Jai Telangana”. Mr Prakash Kumar of Garla, Khamman district, B.E. 3rd year student and P Sarva Reddy from B.E 4th Year student belongs to Chengoonpalli, Mahabubnagar district and a very prominent supporter of Telangana student’s agitation, Mr Chandu also burnt with critical injuries and after couple of days died.


Further, J. Eshwari Bhai MLA and Smt Shanta Bhai Ex-MLA, Venkata Rama Reddy Panchayat Samiti President Medchal were attended the conventions. 


On 4th April, 1969 a major police firing took place at Secunderabad near Burugu Mahadeva Hall in which Mr Prakash Rao innocent civilian killed.


On 13th April, 1969, at Mortad Village Nizamabad disctrict, police again opened fire on the mob.



On 24th April 1969 Shri Dr Chenna Reddy, Shri Konda Laxman Bapuji MLA, Bojjam Narsimlu, Ramdev, and other veterian leaders came to MBNR for separate Telangana convention conducted by students action committee (SAC) headed by Light Anjeneyulu and S Jagadishwar Reddy, S Prakash, Bala Krishataiah, and NGOs of MBNR (Narsimha Reddy) under the chairmanship of Shri Puli Veeranna, Member Central Action Committee.  In the meeting Dr Chenna Reddy, Konda Laxman spoke in favour of separate Telangana State.  Some other local PR Samiti presidents, C Narsi Reddy, Venkateshwar Rao, Kollapur also spoke about separate Telangana State.


After returning from the Mahabubnagar convention, Dr Chenna Reddy, other congress leaders and SSP MLA Badri Vishal Pitti, SB Giri, EV Padmanabhan, S Venkata Rama Reddy, Samiti President and Mr Mallikarjun, Student’s action committee Chairman, Puli Veeranna Executive Member of Student’s action Committee, S Gopal Rao and Bokka Venkat Reddy, Arifuddin, PJ Suri and school action committee Jaleel Pasha, Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Kamala Manohar Rao, Janardhan Reddy, Suresh formed Telangana Praja Samiti (TPS) 25th April 1969.


On 26th April, 1969 there was a firing in Jadcherla, Mahabubnagar district.


1st May 1969 being labour day, about a lakh people with procession led by student leader Mr Umender President of Secunderabad evening Degree college of O.U. All leader of TPS met Governor and submitted the memoranda, with instigation of the local police, there was bit violence, stone through etc on police.  In return police fired on the mob just before the Raj Bhavan wherein Umender, the President of evening degree college, Secunderabad was killed along with some other prominent leaders and were also killed.


Immediately, TPS has called BANDH on the same day.  However, due to demice of President of India Mr Jakeer Hussain, the mourning days started and with the result TPS bandh call was postponed.


After 7 days of mourning days, again TPS has taken the movement to further and conducted the meetings.


State Govt of Andhra Pradesh issued G.O 36 in 1969 to suppress the separate Telangana movement. It was aimed at repatriating about twenty five thousand non-Mulki (non local) employees illegally appointed in the Telangana region, to their respective places and appointing local candidates in the resultant vacancies. After a prolonged litigation, the Supreme Court of India upheld the constitutional validity of Mulki Rules and facilitated implementation of G.O. 36. It was estimated that between 1973 and 1985 around fifty nine thousand non locals were recruited in the Telangana region. As a result, the people of the region became once again restive and the government was compelled to issue G.O. 610(issued on 30th December 1985) to rectify the situation. But, no one remembered even the existence of this order, until the revival of demand for a separate state of Telangana gathered momentum in 1996.


On 2nd June, 1969 again bandh call has been given due to which firing at several places, Hyderabad and Secunderabad involving large amount of causalities took place.  Then the Government called Army. 



On 3rd June, 1969 (Anti-Gudaisum day) there was again  bandh call given by TPS, in which police in various places, Gowliguda, koti, abids opened fire against agitators in which around 30 people died.  The student leaders like S Gopal Rao, Puliveeranna at Gowliguda area running around the blood bank to collect blood for needy people, at the same time some of the Andhra goondas taken the advantage being stay in Brindavan and Durga Vilas, they attacked the Telangana agitators.


On the same day mid night at 1am (4th June, 1969) Prime Minister of India Smt Indira Gandhi came to Hyderabad with the intention to solve separate Telangana issue.  She had discussions with all TPS leaders, Dr Chenna Reddy, Narotham Reddy, Madhan Mohan, Manik Rao, Raja Ram, Acchuta Reddy, Mr KV Ranga Reddy Former Deputy Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Smt Shanta Bhai, Smt Eswari Bhai and other student leaders, Mallikarjun and Puliveeranna.


The discussions led no result on announcement of separate Telangana state due to some unavoidable circumstances which beyond the scope.  There was still revolt against the state leadership as well form on the separate Telangana state decision.


On 4th Jun 1969 it was like civil war atmosphere.  On 5th Jun, 1969 again police firing took place at Chilkalguda, Secunderabad. On 6th Jun 1969, firing in Kodangal, Mahabubnagar took place.


16th Jun, 1969 a bandh call given by TPS anti repression day and was successful. 


24th Jun, 1969 in jail, police opened lathi charge on convict in jail and G.Venkat Swamy MP visited the jail.  Again, on 26th Jun, 1969, firing at Gowliguda took place. 


27th Jun 1969, firing at Secunderabad.


1st July, 1969 all the TPS leaders Dr Chenna Reddy, Madan Mohan, Nagam Krishna, Konda Laxam Bapuji, T Anjaiah, MA Hashim, Badri Vishal Pitti, SB Giri, Acchita Reddy, M Manik Rao, some of NGO leaders, student leaders Mallikarjun, Puliveeranna, S Gopal Rao, Bokka Venkat Reddy, PJ Suri, P Jangam Rao have been taken into preventive detention and sent to Rajamundry central jail. Warangal Jail list includes Rajaram, Satyanarayana Rao, Purushottam Rao, all district student leaders etc.


All above leaders including Puliveerana were in jail for two months and released.


There was firing on 7th July, 1969 at Dhoolpet, Hyderabad.

On 8th July, again firing at Warangal, Hyderabad and Secunderabad.


Aug 5th, 1969 firing at Kothagudem.

Aug 6th, 1969 firing at Secunderabad.



Presidential election took place and all TPS leaders supported VV Giri to become President of India.



After some time, Siddipet assembly elections were held in which Shri A Madan Mohan got elected as TPS candidate. 


Later on the Telangana agitation was cool down due to some unforeseen activities by various leaders.  15th Jan 1970 Telangana student’s action committee has given a call for bandh on the occasion of 1st anniversary celebration of telengana agitation.  It took violence and continued.  On 17th Jan 1970 all the student leaders, Mallikarjun, Puliveeranna, Jaleel Pasha, Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Janardhan Reddy, S Gopal Rao have been taken into police custody and registered a case under section 120B, (i.e. conspiracy against the Government). On the same day some integrationist through bomb on Mr Chenna Reddy House to create scare among Telangana Leaders.


After some time, school students have been released on bail, but Mallkarjun and Puliveeranna were in jail until May 1970. Later on, they have been released on bail. 


In between April and May, Khairatabad assembly by-elections took place in which TPS candidate Mr Nagam Krishna got elected.


1970 Telangana Agitation:


In the December of 1970, Indira Gandhi dissolved the Lok Sabha and announced a mid-term poll. The TPS eventually contested all the 14 seats to Parliament from Telangana and won 10 out of them. In spite of her overwhelming majority in the Lok Sabha, Indira Gandhi did not give any leverage to the TPS which opted for a compromise in September 1971 and merged with the Congress (R). The deal involved:



           Continuation of Mulki Rules;

           Separate budget and accounts for Telangana

           Separate Pradesh Congress Committee for Telangana

           Resignation of Brahmananda Reddy in favor of a Chief Minister from Telangana.

           The Telangana agitation did not achieve its important goal of a separate state, but secured assurance of safeguards for the region. Its achievement was quite significant. It wrested for the first time the Chief Ministership from the politically dominant Andhras. However, the new Chief Minister, P.V. Narasimha Rao (former Education Minister in the State Cabinet) was an integrationist and politically a light weight in the Reddy dominated Telangana politics. Ten portfolios in his ministry went to Telangana, three of them belonging to the erstwhile TPS.


           During this population agitation, government took the actions to disturb and weaken the agitation.


           In the December of 1970, Indira Gandhi dissolved the Lok Sabha and announced a mid-term poll. The TPS eventually contested all the 14 seats to Parliament from Telangana and won 10 out of them. In spite of her overwhelming majority in the Lok Sabha, Indira Gandhi did not give any leverage to the TPS which opted for a compromise in September 1971 and merged with the Congress (R). The deal involved:

 1. Continuation of Mulki Rules;

2. Separate budget and accounts for Telangana

3. Separate Pradesh Congress Committee for Telangana

4.Resignation of Brahmananda Reddy in favor of a Chief Minister from Telangana.

 The Telangana agitation did not achieve its important goal of a separate state, but secured assurance of safeguards for the region. Its achievement was quite significant. It wrested for the first time the Chief Ministership from the politically dominant Andhras. However, the new Chief Minister, P.V. Narasimha Rao (former Education Minister in the State Cabinet) was an integrationist and politically a light weight in the Reddy dominated Telangana politics. Ten portfolios in his ministry went to Telangana, three of them belonging to the erstwhile TPS.

           3116 times Lati Charges

           18,000 people got hurts badly without bone fractures

           10200 people got bleeded with intensified loti charges

           1816 got their bone fractures.

           1820 times, 11200 GAS Bombs were used to spread and disturb the agitators

           147 "times" (how many guns, don’t know) police firings, 370 Telangana brothers died

1971 parliament election, TPS has wont 10 out 14 seats under separate telangana slogan, but their mandate is not honored.


Still some of the extremist leaders who were not the Congress men remained in the cause. The non Congress men formed the STPS (Samyukta Telangana Praja Samiti) Leader include, Badri Vishal Pitti, Sada Laxmi, Konda Laxman etc. under leadership of Sridhar Reddy, student leader.


In the year 1972 election all candidates belongs to STPS under leadership of M Sridhar Reddy contested, only Mr Purushotham Rao got elected and rest we defeated.  


Two issues were discussed and agreed upon:


1. The appointment of a senior civil service officer to decide the question of Telangana surpluses.


2. The transfer of non-domicile public employees from Telangana and providing jobs for them in the Andhra region.


Following the All-Party Accord of January 1969, the State Government issued orders for the transfer of non-domicile public employees from Telangana. The Government order on these transfers was the Public Employment Act of 1957. The rules were challenged by Andhra employees in the Andhra Pradesh High Court. The High Court struck down the Public Employment Act and the Rules. The Government appealed to the division bench of the High Court.


 A few other Andhra employees led by A.V.S. Narasimha Rao filed a separate writ petition in the Supreme Court on February 4, 1969, challenging the validity of the Government Order and also the Public Employment Act of 1957 and the Rules. The Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court gave its judgement on March 28 quashing the Government Order.

 As a follow-up measure of the All-Party accord, the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh arranged for the accounting of Telangana surplus funds. Kumar Lalith, Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General, assessed the surplus funds as Rs.34.10 crores.


 The Telangana agitation continued in the meantime. In the beginning it was leaderless. Madan Mohan, a lawyer, formed a forum known as the Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) in February 1969. Chenna Reddy was sympathetic to these leaders. Violence increased. Firing was often employed to disperse violent crowds. The TPS organized conventions in many towns across Telangana and soon got strengthened. Chenna Reddy came out openly in support of a separate Telangana and K.V. Ranga Reddy gave his blessings to the movement. Law and order continued to deteriorate.

 The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi discussed the problem with leaders of the Opposition in Parliament on April 9,1969. Except for the Swatantra Party all others did not support a separate state. The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi rejected the demand for the ouster of Kasu Brahmananda Reddy from the leadership of the Andhra Pradesh Congress.


State Govt of Andhra Pradesh issued G.O 36 in 1969 to suppress the separate Telangana movement. It was aimed at repatriating about twenty five thousand non-Mulki (non local) employees illegally appointed in the Telangana region, to their respective places and appointing local candidates in the resultant vacancies. The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi discussed the problem with leaders of the Opposition in Parliament on April 9,1969. Except for the Swatantra Party all others did not support a separate state. The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi rejected the demand for the ouster of Kasu Brahmananda Reddy from the leadership of the Andhra Pradesh Congress.


  The Prime Minister announced an Eight-Point Formula on April 11,1969 to ensure the development of Telangana. In consonance with this formula, the Centre appointed two committees:

 1.      Committee of Jurists under former Justice K.N. Wanchoo to suggest measures to provide constitutional safeguards for the Telangana people in the matter of public employment

2.      Committee under Justice Bhargava to assess the revenue surpluses of Telangana.


In spite of these measures the agitation mounted and grew in intensity. Bandhs, hartals and processions were very frequent. Demand for a separate state became the central theme of the agitation.

The Prime Minister visited Hyderabad on June 4, 1969. She met leaders of different groups and political parties. Subsequently, then Union Home Minister, Y. B. Chavan, also visited Hyderabad to have discussions. Consensus reached on two things:


1. The dismissal of Brahmananda Reddy's ministry.

2. Proclamation of Presidential rule in Andhra Pradesh.

Realizing that the agitation was very strongly motivated, particularly about the dismissal of his government, Brahmananda Reddy tendered his resignation on June 27, 1969.


The Congress leadership sent Congress President Nijalingappa and a senior member Kamaraj Nadar, to seek the verdict of the State Legislature Party. The Congress Legislature Party affirmed its support to Kasu Brahmananda Reddy and suggested that he should continue until normalcy was restored and a peaceful changeover should be opted, giving the leadership to someone from Telangana.


 The Telangana leaders felt that agitation politics alone would not be sufficient to dethrone Brahmananda Reddy. This realization made the TPS enter into the electoral politics. It won a by-election in June 1970, defeating the Congress (R). By this time, the Congress had already split at the national level and the TPS supported the leadership of Indira Gandhi. Brahmananda Reddy also supported her.


 Jai Andhra Movement:


In 1972, another agitation known as the Jai Andhra Movement was launched with demanding the withdrawal of all the constitutional protections given to Telangana and scrapping of GO 610 and Six-Point formula against high court of the India.

The agitation was a consequence to the Telangana agitation which demanded that only `Mulkis' should be appointed to the posts in Telangana regions including the Hyderabad city.


‘Mulki’ is defined as one who was born in the State of Hyderabad or resided there continuously for fifteen years and had given an affidavit that he abandoned the idea of returning to his native place. Even after the formation of Andhra Pradesh, the Mulki rules continued to be in force in the Telangana region. As these rules stood in the way of the people of the Andhra region to compete for the posts, their validity was challenged in the High Court. A full bench of the High Court by a four-one majority held that the Mulki rules were not valid and operative after the formation of Andhra Pradesh. But on an appeal by the State Government; the Supreme Court declared on the 3rd of October, 1972 that the Mulki rules are constitutionally valid, the job occupied by Andhra has to be vacated and move to their respective region valid and were in force. This judgment created a great political crisis in the State. The people of the Andhra region felt that they were reduced to the status of second class citizens in their own State capital. They felt that the only way to uphold their dignity was by severing their connection with Telangana and started a movement for the separation of Andhra region from Andhra Pradesh.


Result of this agitation - all the safeguards, including supreme court judgment on mulki rules were nullified with 32nd constitutional amendment of article 371-D pertaining to Public Employment.



Telangana has been a victim of politics of domination and discrimination

           The Mulki Rules:


The Mulki Rules formed part of the Hyderabad Civil Services Regulations put into operation in obedience to “His Exalted Highness” the Nizam’s Firman dated 25th Ramzan 1337 Hijri , corresponding to 1919 A.D



What exactly are Mulki Rules : In Urdu language, mulk is a nation, and the residents are Mulkis.


As per the firmans issued by Nizam in favour of Local Candidates employment, rules are follows:


1. A person shall be called a Mulki if: –

           By birth he/she is a subject of the Hyderabad State, or

           By residence in the Hyderabad State, be entitled to be a Mulki, or

           His/her father having completed 15 years of Service was in the Government Service at the time of his/her birth , or

           She/he is a spouse of a person who is a Mulki.


2. A person shall be called a Mulki who was a permanent resident of the Hyderabad State for at least 15 years and has abandoned the idea of returning to the place of his residence and has obtained an affidavit to that effect on a prescribed form attested by a Magistrate.

3. Presribes the contents of the application to be made for grant of a Mulki Certificate and required the applicant, among other things, to say:

Where was he residing, prior to his residing in the Hyderabad State


Place of birth and nationality of his father and grand father

From what period the applicant is permanently residing in the Hyderabad State and whether he has abandoned the idea of returning to his native land

Stipulates conditions for verification of the contents by the Police Department.


1972 Telangana Agitation:


In 1972 - The supreme court has given judgment saying Mulki Rules are constitutional in Telangana region.

Due to political and historical reasons, Hyderabad state remained isolated. There were no adequate educational facilities.

There were very few opportunities to enter public service in competition with others from outside the state.

Urdu which was not the language of 90% of the people was the official language of Administration.

SRC suggested the continuance of the Telangana region as a separate state.

An agreement of the elders of both the regions was reached to reserve to them the benefits of securing employment on the strength of their residence.

The formation of a Regional Standing Committee was also agreed upon.


Six point formula



A result of 1969 agitation, Six point formula was released by Congress Leader – Indira Gandhi in the favor of Telangana Development.


The Six points are:



1. There should be greater financial allocations for the development of Backward Regions, and Capital city of Hyderabad A State Level Planning Board with legislators from Backward regions, together with experts be created and Sub-boards should be created for backward regions. No concrete measures were taken more so for Telangana Region.


2. In educational institutions in the State, to give preference to local candidates a state level policy should be evolved. In the capital city of Hyderabad, to augment educational facilities, a Central University should be established. This has resulted in seven years of study in the regional areas in lieu of 15 years of residence in the Telangana region. University of Hyderabad, has neither helped Telangana students nor academics, as it was a National University.


3. Up to a certain fixed level of recruitment local candidates should be preferred; this policy should be followed even in promotions giving preference to local candidates. This gave way for Zonal System, four years of study in lieu of Mulki Rules. This aspect will be discussed in a greater detail, separately.


4. In respect of recruitment, seniority, promotions etc to resolve the problems Administrative Tribunals should be created, and the decisions of these Tribunals shall be binding on the Government. These Tribunals only prolonged the process of rendering justice, rather than solving the problems. Recent Tribunal Orders on GO 610 are a few examples


5. To give effect to the above issues, to overcome legal hurdles, the President of India should be empowered to make Constitutional amendments. This gave way for 32nd amendment, creation of 371-D, Presidential Orders, which were systematically violated by successive governments in the state, dominated by political, and administrative dominance of Andhra and Rayalaseema.


6. If the above conditions are fulfilled, the continuation of Mulki Rules and Telangana Regional Committee become unnecessary.


While above conditions 1 to 5 were not implemented, the sixth point was the only point that was immediately implemented, because it served the interests of Andhra and Rayala Seema regions.



Government Order 610:



 Present Status


Govt appointed a House Committee to oversee implementation of GO 610 under pressure from Telangana leaders. The House Committee found massive violation of GO 610. Members from opposition parties criticized the non-implementation of the 610 GO citing several violations of the six-point formula, pushing the Government on the defensive in the Assembly. There was no such thing called free zone said J. M. Girglani, former IAS officer and one-man commission appointed by the previous TDP Government to study violations in the implementation of GO 610. "By declaring Hyderabad free zone, you will be taking away jobs of people of Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy districts. What sin have they committed to deserve such an action?" he questioned.

TRS MLA T. Harish Rao said while Chief Minister Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy assured the implementation of GO 610 by June 30 2007, Home Minister K. Jana Reddy "literally gave up" by saying the process would be completed by December next year. "Since it is clear that the Government will not implement the orders till the next elections, the only course left for us is to launch a massive agitation," he said. TDLP deputy leader T. Devender Goud, G. Kishan Reddy (BJP) and P. Janardhan Reddy (Congress) demanded action to be taken against officials, who demonstrated laxity in providing information about implementation of GO 610


This G.O is ignored since last 22 years. As everyone aware Andhrites knocked away jobs of Telangana people. Implementation of this G.O. means sending them back to their regions..


“Telangana has always been neglected and injustice has been delivered again and again by any Government for the region to the people of Telangana .the sentiments of Telangana are now used for only getting the power .Telangana region i.e., the erstwhile Hyderabad State was surplus state .After merger into Andhra ,the Telangana region became backward region” . -- Akbaruddin Owaisi, AIMIM Floor Leader




Political parties provide the dynamics of political mechanism. Sigmund Neumann has described the general role of political parties as "the life line of modern politics". It is no doubt that "political parties are not of the government, they are below or behind it". The voice of the state today is not so much the voice of the people as that of the dominant institutions, economic progress and social morality are all dependant on the political parties in a state so the word "politics" has come to mean "part politics".


Andhra Pradesh was described as the citadel of the Congress. After its formation as a separate state, the Congress party had an unbroken record of ruling it. In the early years after the formation of A.P. state, the Communist party had posed a challenge to congress. Today it hardly possesses the necessary strength in the legislature to form even a strong opposition. Still its importance in politics cannot be ignored. Political parties like Praja Socialist Party and Swatanthra Party, which made a mark in national politics, created some sensation in Andhra Pradesh.  Also the emergence of Janatha Party in 1977 had its impact on all political parties in the state and several prominent leaders in the Congress and other parties joined it.


The political parties which deserve a mention are The Congress(I), The Communist Parties, Swatanthra, The Jana Sangh, Bharathiya Janatha Party, Telugu Desam Party, NCP, Socialist Parties like KMPP, PSP and SP and state level parties like PP,KLP,TPS and Majlis. The ruling of state by the Congress came to an end with the emergence of TDP in the year 1983.


Another significant feature of A.P politics is the absence of a regional issue strong enough to enable a powerful regional party to come into existence. In A.P when a sub-regional issue, namely, safe guards for Telangana came to the forefront, The Telangana Praja Samithi(TPS) came into existence. It is a typical example of a regional party, which can thrive whipping up popular emotions on regional and sub-regional issues. Its activities were confined to Telangana only. The TPS had no ephemeral existence. It secured a sweeping success in the Loksabha elections in 1971. However, shortly afterwards the TPS was merged in the Congress Party. Later in the recent past Telangana Rastra Samithi came into existence with regards to the safeguard of Telangana people with a separate Telangana statehood.


Elections in a democracy have great significance for they act, not merely as indicators of public opinion but also contribute to its evolution as a political system. Elections conducted under adult suffrage are "an act of faith in the common man of India and in his practical commonsense". Elections have a threefold importance. They influence the policies of government, the organization of parties and opinion of the citizens. Since formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, there have been 11 general elections to the state Assembly and 13 general elections to the Lok Sabha.


In 1955, elections were held to the Legislative Assembly of the newly formed state of Andhra. The united Congress Party swept the polls. The Communist Party was routed and Congress emerged as a dominant Party.


In 1957, the second general elections were held for the Legislative Assembly and were restricted to Telangana region. For election to the Legislative Assembly in the Andhra region had been held in 1955. The Congress swept the polls.


Third general elections held in the year 1962 were the first general elections held in the whole of Andhra Pradesh for electing 300 representatives to the state Legislative Assembly. Congress swept the polls by getting 177 seats out of 300 contested.


Fourth general elections held in the year 1967 for the state Legislative Assembly. Result was, Congress swept the polls by getting 165 seats.


Fifth general elections were held in the year 1972 because of the mid term polls for Lok sabha. Significance of 1972 elections was 137 contestants from Congress were from SC, ST and Minorities communities. Result was, Congress swept the polls by winning 219 seats of 287 contested.


Sixth general elections to the Legislative Assembly were held in the year 1977. Congress swept the polls irrespective of the split in Congress party.


Seventh general elections to the state Legislative Assembly were held in the year 1983 and it marked the end of Congress era. The Telugu Desam Party emerged as winner with 198 seats out of 287 contested. Congress just won 60 out of 293 seats contested.

Eight general elections to the state legislative Assembly were held in the year 1985.TDP had an alliance with like-minded parties like BJP, CPI, CPM, and Majlis. The TDP swept the polls.


Ninth general elections to the Legislative Assembly of A.P. were held in the year 1989. Congress threw out the TDP, with Congress winning 182 seats while TDP won 74 seats.


Tenth general election to the Legislative Assembly of A.P. were held in the year 1994.TDP threw out Congress out of power, with TDP winning 2/3 majority along with Communist Parties.


Eleventh general elections to the Legislative Assembly of A.P. were held in the year 1999. TDP retained the power in spite of the internal crisis in TDP Party. But congress slightly improved its tally and reached three-figure mark. This eleventh assembly was dissolved in Dec' 2003 and Elections are declared in second week of April '2004.



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